TITLE MUSIC (off)   

This game simulates the tactial combat of tank platoons in open area. There are many options, even to build own war situations. Without reading the manual you won't get very far. Said to be a classic breakthrough strategy game in its time.

Commodore 64

© 1984 Strategic Simulations, Inc.  


Disk / Tape

1 Player

Keyboard and Joystick in Port 2

Concept by Joel Billings

Design, Coding, Graphics and Music?
by David Hille

Includes Editor to build own Scenarios

Imported to Europe on Tape and Disk
by U.S. Gold in 1984


Combat Leader

    I. DESCRIPTION OF GAME.................   2
   II. LOADING INSTRUCTIONS................   2
  III. NOVICE GAME.........................   2
   IV. MILITARY CONCEPTS...................   4
    V. FORCES..............................   4
   VI. WEAPONS.............................   5
  VII. MOVEMENT............................   5
 VIII. MESSAGES............................   5
   IX. USE OF PATROLS......................   6
    X. INTELLIGENCE........................   6
   XI. INFANTRY............................   6
  XII. CHANGING YOUR COMMAND...............   7
 XIII. CONTROL KEYS........................   7
  XIV. SCORING.............................   7
   XV. INTERMEDIATE GAME...................   8
  XVI. OTHER GAMES AVAILABLE...............   8
 XVII. BUILDING YOUR OWN GAME..............   8
XVIII. TYPES OF OPTIONS....................   8
   XX. DESIGNER'S NOTES....................  10
       APPENDICES..........................  11

NOTE: The (SELECT or F5) key will display the list of missions from
which you may choose.  You may press the (SELECT or FS) key once the
initial display is shown and thus skip over the theme music if you so

I. Description of Game

COMBAT LEADER is a tactical game that simulates combat between
elements of tank and mechanised infantry companies on the modern
battlefield. It is a flexible game that can be played on different
levels and can include many different elements, such as tanks,
infantry fighting vehicles, infantry, machine guns, rifles, antitank
weapons, and mortars. With this game it is possible to simulate
tactical combat in a wide variety of scenarios from the period of
World War II up through the 1980's. The game is complex, especially
for those who do not have any military experience. For this reason, we
suggest you try the novice game first.

II. Loading Instructions

(Atari Versions):
This game requires 48K of memory. If there are any cartridges in the
front slots of your computer, remove them before loading.

To load the cassette version:
1. Rewind the tape.
2. Press the (PLAY) button on the tape recorder.
3. Tum on the computer while holding down the (START) key (START and
OPTION on XL models). The computer will beep once.
4. Hit (RETURN) on the computer keyboard.
5. Allow 10 minutes for it to load. You don't have to hang around
while it is loading. The computer will beep three times when it is
finished loading the program.
6. If the computer display gives the "MEMO PAD" message, then
something went awry.  Repeat the loading procedure.

To load the disk version:
1. Insert the diskette and tum on the disk drive.
2. Turn on the computer. (On XL models hold down OPTION whilst turning
3. The program will load automatically.

(Commodore 64 Versions)
To load the cassette version:
1. Rewind the tape.
2. Press the (PLAY) button on the tape recorder.
3. Tape LOAD and hit (RETURN).
4. Then type RUN and hit (RETURN).

To load the disk version:
1. Turn on the disk drive,
2. Type LOAD """, 8, 1 and hit (RETURN).
3. Then type RUN and hit (RETURN).

Notes: Keep cassette recorder at least two feet away from the monitor
to prevent electrical interference. When playing with several units,
you should set a pace of no greater than six.

Control Keys:
The f7 key acts as the (START) key. Hit it to start a new game.
The f5 key acts as the (SELECT) key. Hit it to select a game from the
list of missions.
Note: Plug your joystick into control port #2.

III. Novice Game

After the preliminary music and display, the computer will present the
following menu:

Select game:
(1) Novice
(2) Intermediate
(3) Build your own game
(4) Attack Enemy
(5) Seize and hold position
(6) Mobile Defence
(7) Reconnaissance

Hit the (1) key to start the novice game. A portion of the battlefield
is now displayed. Hit the Space Bar now to pause the game. Notice that
the border around the battleground turns black when the action is

On the screen you will see a group of tanks. This group of 5 tanks
forms Platoon A, a tank platoon that you command. In this game you are
to meet and destroy a tank platoon commanded by your computer. The
computer's platoon is located to the north, out of the area displayed
by the computer.

The size of the battlefield is 77 character lines high and 40
characters wide with each character representing 30-40 meters in
distance (although due to some abstract quantities of the game, this
is not an absolute scale). About 30 percent of the battlefield (23
character lines by 40 characters wide) can be viewed at any time. To
see the northern (upper) part of the battlefield, use your joystick to
move the cursor (a small orange circle) to the top of the screen.
Notice that the screen scrolls when you try to move the cursor beyond
the upper edge of the screen. See the numbers on the sides of the
screen? There is a number for every ten character lines. For example,
the 6 corresponds to the 60th character line from the top.

You will notice five types of terrain on the battlefield

-- Open fields (blank areas),

-- Trees,

-- Rocky ares
   (irregular patterns of tiny spots),

-- Depressions
   (dark, circular areas), and

-- Hills (lines mark the outer edge of
   each level).

Each type of terrain has certain effects on the visibility of units,
their speed, and cover (the chance of being hit by enemy fire):

-- Clear terrain offers good visibility and movement but little cover.

-- Trees restrict visibility, slow movement of armour, and provide
   good cover.

-- Rocky areas allow good visibility, restrict movement significantly,
   and offer a little cover.

-- Depressions allow good vision for units in them, slow movement of
   units climbing out of them, and provide good cover.

-- Hills allow very good visibility for units on top of them, slow
   movement of units climbing up their slopes, and provide some cover.
   Of course, you cannot see through hills.

At the bottom of the screen, you will see a message from your
Battalion Headquarters on the maximum score you can achieve in this
game -- 20 points. You receive points for destroying an enemy tank and
lose points when one of your tanks is destroyed. To obtain the maximum
number of points possible, you must destroy all enemy forces while
losing none of your own. The points for the novice game can range from
0 to 20. At the end of the game, your Battalion Headquarters will give
you the final score. To obtain the current score while the game is
being played, hit the (S) key.

In COMBAT LEADER, the information on enemy forces is obtained from
those forces you command that see enemy units. You see the enemy
through the eyes of your troops. An enemy tank will appear on the
screen only if at least one of your troops is looking at it at that
moment. A unit can view a 90 degree area at a time, as shown-

  |                                       |
  |                                       |
  |                                       |
  |    VISIBLE                            |
  |     AREA                              |
  |                                       |
  |                 /\.        ,/\.       |
  |                 \. \.    ,/    \.     |
  |                   \. \. /        \.   |
  |                     \./\___        \. |
  |                    ,/ \    \         \|
  |                  ,/   |     |       ,/|
  |                 /     |     /     ,/  |
  |                 \.     \___/    ,/    |
  |                   \.          ,/      |
  |                     \.      ,/        |
  |                       \.  ,/          |
  |                         \/            |

The turret of a tank can be moved to position the tank cannon in any
of eight directions. A unit can see the same direction its gun is
pointed. A unit can see up to 24 characters of distance up, down, or
across on the screen (16 characters diagonally). A unit will be
visible if it is within that range, is within an enemy's field of
vision, and is not hidden from view by hills, trees, rocks, etc. The
computer has no advantage in seeing opposing forces.

In this game you are acting as Platoon Leader, a position held by a
commissioned officer, specifically, a Lieutenant. As an officer, you
control your men by giving orders. Basically, the three types of
orders you can give your men are:

-- where to go,
-- where to look, and
-- whether to fire or cease firing.

Your tank platoon acts on your orders. For example, to move your

1. Move the joystick to position the cursor at the battlefield
   location to which the platoon is to move.
2. Hit the (A) key. This will designate that Platoon A (your platoon)
   is to receive an order.
3. Hit the (G) key. This will issue the order to the platoon to go to
   the position marked by the cursor.

To order your units to fire, hit the (A) key, then the
(F) key for "fire at will." After this order is given, your units will
fire at any enemy forces that they see. This order will remain in
effect until a "cease firing" order is given

To issue any order in this game, you hit two keys.  First, hit the key
to designate which unit is to receive the order. Then, hit the key
corresponding to the order desired. There are four basic orders a tank
Platoon Leader can issue:

G = Go to position marked by cursor.
T = Target position is marked by cursor (i.e. have
    the unit look towards the cursor position).
F = Fire at will
C = Cease firing.

You may issue an order to an individual tank by hitting the number key
(1) to (5) to designate the tank, instead of hitting (A). That will
allow you to control your tanks individually or in sections.  An order
remains in effect until another order superseding it is given. For
example, if the order to fire is given, this command remains in effect
until an order to cease firing is given.  H a tank is destroyed and
you designate it to receive an order, you will get the message "NO
RESPONSE" for that tank.

During the game, you will receive a message when your tanks first see
the enemy and when you come under fire. The border around the
battlefield turns red to tell you a message was received.  To display
the message, hit the red "FIRE" button of your joystick.

During the game, a tank may be either disabled or destroyed by enemy
fire. H disabled. a tank can fire but cannot move. If a tank is merely
disabled, it will eventually be repaired by its crew. A tank may not
be repaired while it is under fire.

To start a new game, hit the (START) key. You can start a new game at
any time.

Now you know everything you need to play the Novice Game. If you don't
remember all you have read -- don't worry. The game is not that
complicated. Besides, as Platoon Leader, you are in the role of a
Lieutenant. H you were too knowledgeable you would not be convincing
as a Lieutenant.  To.resume play, hit the Space Bar again. Try out the
Novice Game to get a feel for COMBAT LEADER. After you are comfortable
with it, move on to the additional information to play the
Intermediate Game. Don't be intimidated by the length of the material.
Most of it is intended to enhance your understanding and enjoyment of
the game. It does not have to be memorized!

IV. Military Concepts:

I'm providing some background for those who have had little exposure
to the nature of modern mechanized warfare.

Until World War II, horse cavalry was the mobile force in an any.
Cavalry was used to outmanoeuvre and outflank an enemy force, to scout
the enemy, and to rapidly move to a critical area of the battlefield
to concentrate combat force.  Cavalry was replaced between World War I
and Word War II by motorized forces, including tanks, half-tracks, and
trucks that were used to equip the armoured division (or panzer
division, as the Germans call it). The armoured division is a combined
arms force consisting of tank and motorized infantry units. In this
force the tanks are used to shock and overwhelm the enemy force while
the infantry, transported by some type of infantry carrier, follow up
to mop up resistance or to fight in areas unsuitable for armour.

The modern combat leader has a variety of weapons at his disposal. The
weapons provide two types of fire, direct and indirect. Direct fire is
provided by weapons that are fired directly at enemy forces that are
in view. Direct fire is provided by rifles, machine guns, tank
cannons, and antitank guns. Indirect fire is provided by mortars.
Direct fire can be very deadly but is limited to forces in line of
sight of your forces.  Fire suppression is un important factor in
modem combat. What it refers to is the tendency for direct fire to
suppress or inhibit the fire of enemy units.  The principle is simple:
when you are being shot at you spend more time under cover and less
time shooting. In this game, the rate of fire of a unit drops if it
comes under fire.

There are three modes of movement for combat forces: travelling,
travelling overwatch, and bound- ing overwatch. The mode of combat
leader selects depends on the likelihood of contact with the enemy.

Travelling refers to moving quickly, in formation, without looking for
enemy units. It is used if contact with the enemy is considered
extremely unlikely.

Overwatch refers to the use of part of a force to watch over the
movement of a leading force. If the leading force comes under fire,
the overwatch force returns fire until the leading force takes cover.

If a platoon or company is moving using the travelling overwatch mode,
it is divided into two parts, with one part leading and the other in
an overwatch capacity. Travelling overwatch is used if contact with
enemy is possible.

Bounding overwatch refers to moving each half of a platoon or company
past each other by bounds, a sort of leap frogging. The two forces
take turns in the roles of overwatch and leader.  Only one force moves
at a time. Bounding overwatch is used if contact with the enemy is
likely.  The structure of an army is based on levels of command. The
levels range from the commander of an army group (a General) to a
Squad Leader (a Sergeant). There are usually about 12 men per squad, a
couple of squads per section, two sections per platoon, three or four
platoons per company, two to four companies per battalion, and so on
up the line. The commander at each level has absolute authority over
subordinate units, unless his orders conflict with those of a higher
level commander. His decisions can result in the life or death of
those who are under his command.

COMBAT LEADER is based on US Army Field Manual 71-1, Tank and
Mechanized Infantry Company Team. It simplifies many of the elements
of modern combat but does correspond fairly well to the composition,
capabilities, and doctrine of some of the forces in the US Army. The
weapons characteristics of combat forces are fairly well represented
in the game.

V. Forces:

This game involves the operations of a combined arms company team. On
the modern battlefield, companies may be pure (consisting of only
tank, rifle, or mechanized infantry platoons) or may contain a mix of.
these under a company headquarters.

Each tank platoon is given the strength of 5 tanks at the start of the
game. Up to 3 tank platoons can be given to each side.

Each infantry platoon consists of 16 two-man teams. Each team is
treated as a single unit in the game. An infantry platoon is divided
into four squads with four teams per squad. The infantry platoon
contains one security (machine gun) squad, one antitank squad, one
rifle squad, and one mortar squad.

Infantry carriers can be used to transport infantry.  A carrier
platoon has 4 carriers at the start of the game. Each carrier can
carry an infantry squad.  When infantry rides in carriers, it is
"mounted".  When on foot, it is referred to as "dismounted." A scout
platoon may be included in the game.  The scout platoon has 4 scout
vehicles. Each vehicle has the same characteristics as an infantry
carrier in terms of size, speed, armour, and weapons, but cannot carry

VI. Weapons:

Six kinds of weapons are used in this game. They are the tank cannon,
the antitank gun, the bazooka (or equivalent light antitank weapon),
the machine gun, the rifle, and the mortar.

The cannon of a tank is very deadly. It has a long range (20
characters) and is lethal to both armour and infantry. It fires about
14 rounds per minute.  An anti-tank gun is mounted on each carrier or
scout vehicle and is carried by each team in an antitank infantry
squad. Its armour-piercing shell or missile can knock out both tanks
and carriers but is ineffective against infantry. Its range is 16
characters. Its rate of fire is about 10 rounds per minute.

A light antitank weapon (such as a bazooka) is carried by each of the
four teams in a rifle squad.  Its armour-piercing shell is similar to
that of an antitank gun but has a short range. Its range is only 8
characters. Its rate of fire is about 10 rounds per minute.

A machine gun is mounted on each tank and carrier and is carried by
each of the four teams in a security squad. It is deadly against
infantry but has no effect on armour. The range of a machine gun is 20
characters. It fires 240 rounds per minute.

A rifle is carried by each of the four teams in a rifle or antitank
squad. It has the same range as the machine gun and each shot is more
accurate, but it fires only 60 rounds per minute.

A mortar is a short cannon that fires a shell in an are high up in the
air. The shells make a whistling sound as they fall to the ground.
Mortars are not very accurate. The radius of the impact area tends to
get smaller the closer they are to their target. Mortars can fire
either smoke or high explosive rounds. The high explosive shells can
knock out armour if they hit it directly, but are most effective
against infantry. The smoke shells create smoke for about one minute
but do not harm armour or infantry (smoke is used to obscure the
vision of the enemy; it is not a weapon). The range of mortars is 8 to
40 characters. H the target you designate for mortars is outside that
range, the mortar squad will send you the message "TARGET OUT OF
RANGE." Mortars fire about 10 rounds per minute.

Each rate of fire shown above is the maximum rate of fire for the
weapon. Actual rates of fire are usually less. Rate of fire is
affected by vision and fire suppression. H the enemy forces are behind
cover, your rate of fire will be lower.Similarly, the rate of fire of
a unit declines when it is under enemy fire since its aim is

VII. Movement

You can order your forces to either move at normal speed or hurry. At
normal speed a unit tends to use cover. Infantry units walk at normal
speed. H units moving at this speed see enemy forces they will stop,
take an, and fire (if they have previously been given an F order).
This slows movement considerably. A unit that is ordered to hurry
tends to avoid trees that slow down movement. Infantry units run when
ordered to hurry. Units hurrying tend to keep moving when enemy forces
are seen, occasionally stopping to take aim and fire (if they have
previously been given an F order). Naturally, units ordered to hurry
will have a slower rate of fire than units moving at normal speed.

Mortar squads, when moving at normal speed or hurrying, will stop
altogether and will not budge when ordered to fire or to provide a
smoke screen.  They will only move after being ordered to cease

VIII. Messages:

You communicate with your units through the cursor which is moved by
your joystick and by sending and receiving message.

When someone sends you a message, the border around the battlefield
turns red. To display the message, hit the fire button on the
joystick. H more than one message is received, they will be displayed
in the order received. After the last message is displayed, the border
will change back to green.

To send a message, hit the key for the unit you are sending  the
message to. Then, hit the letter key corresponding to the message.
While you are in the process of sending a message, the border will
turn blue. After you finish sending it, the border will change back to

If you are the Company Commander, you will control all forces in your
company. You will be able to send a message to any active
platoon,squad, or patrol (if it is not active, you will get the
message, "NO RESPONSE.") As company  commander you will not be able to
control individual tanks or carriers, but you will be able to form

You designate the unit by hitting the letter key corresponding to it:

Letter  Unit Abbreviation  Unit Description
A       PLT A              Tank Platoon A
B       PLT B              Tank Platoon B
C       PLT C              Tank Platoon C
D       PLT D              Carrier Platoon D
E       PLT E              Carrier Platoon E
F       SCOUT              Scout Platoon
G       G PAT              G Patrol
H       H PAT              H Patrol
I       SQ IS              Security Squad I
J       SQ JA              Antitank Squad J
K       SQ KR              Rifle Squad K
L       SQ LM              Mortar Squad L
M       SQ MS              Security Squad M
N       SQ NA              Antitank Squad N
O       SQ OR              Rifle Squad O
P       SQ PM              Mortar Squad P
(Not for sending orders. Used ONLY for setting yourself as company

The single letters corresponding to the units are hard to remember at
first. However, using single keys to give orders is fast. This speed
is appreciated when action on the battlefield is hot and heavy.

These are the orders the Company Commander can give:

G-  Go to position marked by cursor
T-  Target is at position marked by cursor (have
    unit look towards cursor position)
F-  Fire at will.
C-  Cease firing. Do not fire at all until given
    another "F" order.
H-  Hurry! Move to designated position as fast
    as possible. Reduce rate of fire.
N-  Normal speed. Use cover while moving. Fire
    if told to and if targets are available.
S-  Provide smoke screen. (This order is given
    only to mortar units.)
D-  Dismount infantry from carrier.
M-  Mount infantry into carrier.
P-  Provide a patrol out of your platoon.
E-  End your patrol. Rejoin your platoon.

If you hit the wrong key in designating the it to receive the order,
hit the (DELETE) key.  To issue the order to fire all units under your
command, hold down the (SHIFT) key and hit the (F) key.

There are four special function keys:
R-  Report on enemy units seen. This causes
    your units to provide a report on units seen
    by them.
S-  Score. This provides you with the current
X-  Terminate mission. This ends the mission
    and tallies the final score.
SPACE BAR-  Halt play until space bar is
pressed again.

IX. Use of Patrols:

The Company Commander (not a platoon or squad leader) may establish
and end patrols. A patrol is a single tank or carrier that looks
around for enemy units. It can be used to gather information about
enemy locations, in advance of the main body of your forces. To
establish a patrol, bit the key of the platoon to provide the patrol
and then the (P) key. It any units in the platoon are available, they
will become the patrol. Up to 2 patrols (G and H) can be established
on each side.

Patrols constantly look around to identify enemy units. Don t bother
establishing target positions for patrols. They establish their own
target positions.

After enemy units are identified, it may be best to end the patrols so
that the tanks or carriers can fight with their platoons. To end a
patrol, hit the letter (G) or (H) corresponding to the patrol. Then,
hit the (E) key.

X. Intelligence:

All information on the disposition of enemy forces is provided by your
units that view the enemy. This information is passed on to you in the
form of visible objects on your screen and in intelligence reports.
Intelligence reports are sent by units that have spotted and
identified enemy platoons or squads. A report is sent when a unit
first spots an enemy unit or when you request a report. To request a
report, hit the (R) key. You will then receive a report on the
location and direction of each enemy unit that has been seen recently.
If more than one unit has been seen, the border around the
battleground will turn red. The remaining reports will be kept in
memory. Hit the red "Fire" button to display the additional reports.
If no enemy units have been identified, your Company Headquarters will
send the message, "NEGATIVE REPORT," Otherwise, for each unit seen,
you will get a message, such as:


This translates to: "From G Patrol: Platoon D frown enemy company was
seen at position 20 horizontal, 19 vertical, moving in the direction
of Southeast."

The vertical position of a unit on the screen can be identified by
referring to the numbers on the sides of the screen. For example, the
vertical position of 60 on the screen can be located by the number "6"
on the side of the screen. A unit located across from the "6" is at
the vertical position of 60.

There are ten character lines between each number on the side of the
screen. To locate the exact vertical position, count up or down from
the nearest number. For example, a unit located at vertical position
55 is half way between the 5 and 6.

The horizontal position of a unit can range from 0 on the far left of
the screen to 39 on the far right. A 19 is in the centre of the
screen.  North on the screen is at the top. South is at the bottom. If
a unit is moving Southeast, it is moving to the bottom right hand
corner of the screen.

XI. Infantry:

Infantry consists of foot soldiers that make up the bulk of every
army. Each infantry platoon consists of four squads. Each squad
consists of four teams.  Each infantry team (consisting of two men) is
represented by a small "+" on the screen. It is treated as a single
unit in this game.

The four squads that make up a platoon include a security (machine
gun) squad, an anti-tank squad a rifle squad, and a mortar  squad.
Each squad has the ability to fire on enemy infantry. The security
squad fires machine guns, the mortar squad uses mortars, and the other
squads fire rifles against enemy infantry.

Infantry travels on foot at a slow pace unless it runs or unless it is
mounted in a carrier. H you order an infantry squad to hurry, it will
run to the position you designate for it. It runs at nearly three
tines the speed of walking. After running for a couple of minutes, the
infantry will tire and slow down. To rest a tired infantry squad,
order it to return to normal speed.

If the infantry is mounted in a carrier, the carrier will take it
wherever you tell the infantry squad to go. However, the carrier will
disregard the order if you later give an order to the carrier platoon
to go to a different location.

While it is mounted infantry is protected from enemy fire by the
armour of its personnel carrier. It cannot fire at the enemy while
mounted inside a carrier.

Each infantry squad will be mounted at the start of the game if
carriers are available. To dismount a squad, hit the letter key
corresponding to the squad. Then, hit (D) for "dismount." H a carrier
is destroyed while conveying an infantry squad, the squad immediately

To mount a squad, hit the key corresponding to the squad. Then, hit
the (M) key, the carrier assigned to the squad will then move to the
same position you ordered the squad to move to. When the squad and
carrier have reached the same position, the squad will mount the
carrier. H the carrier has been destroyed the mount command will be

XII. Changing Your Command

During a game, you may change the unit you command. You may take over
the command of the entire company or of any platoon or squad. H you
change your command, the computer will take control of the unit you
previously commanded (and fight with you against the enemy forces). To
take over control of another unit, hold down the (CONTROL) key and hit
the letter key of the platoon or squad you want to command. H you want
to take command of the company as a whole, hold down the (CONTROL) key
and hit the (Q) key.

You may change commands any time you want and as many times as you
want. This may come in handy when the unit you are commanding is
destroyed. If you are in command of a squad, don't be surprised if the
computer forces your squad to mount its carrier. Also, remember that
as long as you are a platoon or squad commander you will be able to
give orders to individual tanks, camera, or infantry teams under your
control by using the (1) to (5) keys. Company Commanders may not order
individual units, only platoons, squads and patrols.

NOTE: The concept of fighting an enemy force controlled by the
computer with friendly forces of which some are also con- trolled by
the computer is quite unusual. It is important that players of Combat
Leaders realize that the computer can control units of both sides.

XIII. Control Keys

The (START) key starts the mission. You can start a new mission at
almost any time by hitting the (START) key.

The (SELECT) key will display the list of missions from which you may
choose. You may press the (SELECT) key once the initial display is
shown and thus skip over the theme music if you so wish.

XIV. Scoring:

The score for a game is based primarily on the numbers and types of
units destroyed by each side during a game. The value per unit is 5
points per tank, 3 per carrier, and 1 per infantry. The points are
adjusted based on the relative number of forces on each side, the
strength of armour, fire accuracy, and armour speed. The score shown
as possible score at the start of the game is the maximum score that
can be made based on the strength of each side. For games in which you
are attempting to complete a mission, you can earn a bonus of up to
100 points for completing the mission. A partial bonus is given for
partial completion of the mission. In any case, the score will always
range from 0 to 255 points.

Each player is responsible for ending the game when he feels satisfied
that he has completed his mission (ending the game is done by typing
X). The computer will automatically end the game once it determines
that one side is hopelessly outnumbered.

To determine victory you must relate your final score as a percentage
of the maximum possible score by using the following formula:

Compare this percentage to the following table:


DECISIVE VICTORY              > 74
MARGINAL VICTORY             25-49
DEFEAT                        < 25

EXAMPLE: Assume your maximum score is 230 and your final score is 95.
Using the formula given your percentage would be 41.3 (100 X 95) /230
= 41.3). Since this falls between 25 and 49 you would have achieved a
marginal victory.

XV. Intermediate Game:

The Intermediate Game pits a mechanized infantry platoon that you
command against a similar platoon commanded by the computer. You will
command a carrier platoon and 4 infantry squads:

Key   Abbreviation   Unit Title

D     PLT D          Carrier Platoon D
I     SQ IS          Security Squad I
l     SQ JA          Antitank Squad J
K     SQ KR          Rifle Squad K
L     SQ LM          Mortar Squad L

The four infantry squads will be mounted in their carriers at the
start of the game.

Your objective in this game is to destroy the enemy forces that are
located in the north part of the battlefield.

To select the intermediate game, hit the (SELECT) key. Then, hit the
(2) key.

XVI. Other Games Available:

Besides the novice and intermediate games, you can choose from four
"mission" games or you can build your own game. The four mission games

1. Attack and destroy enemy forces. In this game your objective is to
destroy all forces commanded by the enemy. You will command a tank
company with mechanized infantry platoons attached to it. Your score
depends on your ability to wipe out all enemy forces while preserving
your own forces.

2. Seize and hold an objective position. In this game the computer
will assign you a key terrain position at the start of the game. The
position will be marked with an "X" on the battlefield. You must
occupy the position and fight off enemy attacks. You will command a
mixed tank and mechanized infantry company.  Your score will depend

a. Your ability to destroy enemy forces while preserving your own.

b. Your ability to occupy the key terrain area and hold it until the
   computer gives up its attacks. Note: You do not have to occupy the
   position all the time as long as you have forces on it at the end
   of the game (your forces must be within approximately 5 squares of
   the "X" to hold it).

3. Mobile defence. In this game you will try to keep the enemy forces
as far north as possible fox as long as possible. You will command a
small mixed tank and mechanized infantry company. The score will
depend on your ability to maintain a defensive line as far forward
(North) as possible for as long as possible, while keeping your forces

4. Reconnaissance. In this game you must identify enemy forces. You
will command a light armoured force. Your score will be based on your
ability to identify the enemy forces without having your force
destroyed. Your score will fluctuate up and down based on the number
of enemy units currently identified (you will only receive points for
units which have been spotted within the previous two minutes).

XVII. Building your own Game:

One of the strong points of this game is the ability to easily change
the playing conditions to create a wide variety of games. This is
intended to overcome a problem of many war games -- they become stale
after being played a few times since the player gets used to the
terrain and learns the optimum strategy for success. To prevent this,
you can create your own game with many different types of terrain and
different mixes of forces. Millions of game variations axe available.
You can build a game to suit your specific interests.

XVIII. Types of Options:

1. Hills, trees, rocky areas, and depressions (1 to 8). A "1" for any
of these results in none or practically none of them appearing on the
battlefield. A higher number generally causes more of the terrain
features to appear on the battlefield.

2. Tank and carrier speed (1 to 6). A "1" for any of these results in
very slow speed -- about the same as infantry. A "6" results in fast
movement. A "3" was intended to correspond to around 30 kilometers per
hour while a "6" corresponds to about 60 kilometers per hour.

3. Tank and carrier armour (1 to 6). These numbers refer to the armour
thickness of each vehicle type relative to the armour penetration
ability of tardy and antitank guns. Thinner armour results in a higher
probability of damage or destruction if the vehicle is hit by enemy
fire.  Note: Armour is thick or thin only in relation to the
penetration ability of a gun that is used against it. Tank armour has
tended to get progressively thicker since tanks were invented in World
War I. Similarly, the penetration ability of anti-armour weapons has
progressively increased. A heavy tardy that was nearly impervious to
fire from a 20MM antitank gun early in World War II would be
considered thinly armoured relative to today's antitank missiles.
Carrier armour is thinner than tank armour, thus a value of 2 for tank
armour would be equivalent to a value of 3 or 4 for carrier armour.

4. Antitank gun fire (0 to 3). A higher number generally refers to
greater accuracy or a higher probability of hitting targets. A "0"
prohibits carriers from firing antitank guns. A "1" results in the
same fire accuracy as a light antitank gun or bazooka with a range
limited to 8 characters, instead of 16 for a regular antitank gun. A
"2" rating corresponds to a recoilless rifle such as the Soviet RPG-7
or a medium antitank guided missile such as the U.S. Dragon missile
system. A "3" corresponds to a heavy antitank gun such as the Soviet
Sagger or the U.S. TOW antitank guided missile system. An "0" rating
is appropriate for World War II carriers and for modem carriers that
do not normally mount an antitank gun. H a "0" rating is chosen,
infantry antitank squads for that aide will get a rating of "2";
otherwise  the infantry antitank squad  will assume  the rating
given for antitank  gun fire.Infantry rifle squads will always be
given a rating of "1".  Mortar and machine gun squads will always be
given a rating of "0".

5. Tank fire (1 to 3). A higher number means a better chance of
hitting a target. Since range is an important factor when determining
hit probabilities, the higher the rating, the greater the "effective"
range of the tank.

6. Number of tank (0 to 3) and carrier (0 to 2) platoons. The number
shown is the number a side will have at the start of the game. Each
aide can have up to 3 tank platoons and 2 carrier platoons.

7. Panic under fire (Y or N). A "Y" (yes) will subject the units on
both sides with the possibility of panicking when they come under
heavy enemy fire, When a unit panics, it turns and runs ignoring
orders from its commander until it is out of danger. An "N" (no)
causes all units to remain cool under fire.

8. Pace of game (1 to 8) A higher number causes everything to speed up
in the game, making the game more exciting and more difficult.  The
most realistic pace in this game is about 3 or 4. The rates of fire of
the various weapons systems, given earlier in this manual, corresponds
to a pace of 4.

9. Scenario # (1 to 8). A different number here changes the mix of
terrain elements to add variety to the game.

10. Command (A to Q). H you choose "Q" you will be the Company
Commander. Otherwise, the letter corresponds to the platoon or squad
for which you will be the leader. H you choose to be a squad or
platoon leader, the computer will be the Company Commander.

11. Scout platoon (Y or N). A "Y" (yes) results in a scout platoon
being included in the game. A scout platoon is a platoon of carriers
that do not carry infantry.

12. Number of infantry platoons (0 to 2). The number shown is the
number each side will have at the start of the game. Up to 2 infantry
platoons may be included on each side.

XIX. Ideas For Creating Your Own Games:

COMBAT LEADER gives you the opportunity to create games to simulate
combat between various types of armoured forces at various time
periods from World War II on. To help you do this, Appendix B provides
some information on the armour, speed, and fire rating of various
armoured fighting vehicles.

Armour thickness in the the tables refers to the maximum thickness of
armour, measured in millimeters. There are 25 millimeters per inch.
This means that the maximum thickness of the German Panzerkampfwagen
III from World War II was about two inches. The maximum armour
thickness of the modem Soviet tank, T-10, is about 10 inches. The
thickness of armour on different parts of a tank tends to vary. As a
general rule, the sides and back of a tank have roughly half the
thickness of the front armour.

The tank speed shown in the table is the top road speed, measured in
kilometers per hour (KPH).  You may convert this to miles per hour by
dividing by 1.6 (there are 1.6 kilometers per mile). For example, the
Matilda tank had a speed of 24 KPH or 15 miles per hour.

The factors in the table correspond to numbers in the option list. For
example, suppose you want to simulate battles between elements of the
German Afrika Corps and the British Eighth Army in North Africa during
the spring of 1942. On the German side you might choose the
Panzerkampfwagen III tank while on the British side you might choose
the Matilda tank. (Panzerkampfwagen is abbreviated as PKW in Appendix
B. It means "armoured fighting vehicle") If you chose to play the
German side you would give your tanks an armour strength of 4 and a
speed of 5. You would give the enemy tanks an armour strength of 6 and
a speed of 3.  Naturally, these factors can be adjusted to agree with
your knowledge of the tanks or your particular tastes. The terrain
would be that of desert with factors of 2 or 3 for hills and trees and
about a 4 for rocky areas and depressions. Fire accuracy would be a 1
for each side, to reflect the state of fire control at 'hat time.

A sample "build your own game" is given in appendix A. In this game
the player should attempt to hold either hill 25 HOR 28 VER or hill 20
HOR 48 VER. The player should award himself 20 points if he holds a
hill at the end of the game (also add 20 points to the possible
maximum score).  This game recreates an American defence of a key area
in France during September l944. The defending forces consisting of
one Sherman  platoon and one tank destroyer platoon fought off an
attack by two enemy Panther platoons and a platoon of infantry carried
by STG III assault guns.

XX. Designer's Notes:

I am providing some comments on the way Combat Leader was designed for
those who are interested in the techniques of software development for
a large program.

Combat Leader is a modular program. A module, by the way, is a
subroutine that performs a specific function. Everything that is large
and complicated can be broken down into component parts that are small
and simple. With modular programming, you identify the functions that
will be performed by the program, and write the routines that will be
used to perform the functions.  Routines will normally use from 50 to
200 bytes.  This program consists of hundreds of subroutines.  The
main program itself consists of only 100 bytes. The use of modular
programming simplifies a program. That is important for a large
program like Combat Leader, that has about 18,000 instructions. It
also aids in debugging. When an error occurs it can easily be traced
to a specific routine and isolated. It is important to document a
modular program. You should always document what each routine does,
show what goes into it, and what comes out of it. That way, when you
make changes, you won't have to trace through and decipher big chunks
of code.

Time management played an important part in the design of this
program. Quite a bit goes on all at once, especially when 120 separate
tanks, carriers, and infantry teams are involved in a battle. Machine
language is fast, but even it can get bogged down if a program is
poorly designed.  To keep things moving smoothly while the program is
running, a few important techniques are used.  The program functions
are grouped into cycles, with 12 cycles per second. The computer is
always busy; when it completes a cycle early, it runs "vision"
routines (routines in which units look for and identify enemy unit).
Tables are used extensively. Use of tables can cut execution time
considerably, since it takes much less time to look up a value on a
table than to run a routine to compute it or to execute a series of
"if-then" type statements. Use of tables has some added benefits --
they are easy to change and cut down on the length of routines.

Combat Leader makes use of "artificial intelligence" on various
levels. Although the term "artificial intelligence" sounds esoteric,
the actual development of routines for tactical decisions made by the
computer is rather simple. The process involves three actions:
identify the factors that affect the decisions (for example, type of
terrain, position of the enemy, level of enemy fire, relative
strength, and so on); quantify the factors into numbers and place the
numbers in tables; and write a routine that will select the computer's
decision based on the decision tables and random values (to add
unpredictability). Using this method it is possible to develop
decision routines that do a pretty good job of simulating human
decision processes.

The key word in developing a larger program is simplicity. By using
modular programming, making heavy use of tables for all types of
processes, and by fully documenting each function" it is possible to
create very large, sophisticated programs.

COMBAT LEADER represents an advance in the current state of the art
for computer war games. Computers hold great promise in the future for
creating war games that are increasingly more enjoyable and more
realistic.  Computers offer some significant advantages for war games:
(i) they quickly and painlessly perform the "bookkeeping" that
otherwise must be performed manually; (ii) they readily provide a
second or third player for a game; and (iii) they offer dimensions not
often found in board games, including more varied terrain, the use of
"robot" subordinate commanders, greater ranges of movement and combat
factors, realistic intelligence, and the possible; use of arcade speed
and graphics. All of these factors can result in war games that are
more exciting, challenging and realistic.

-- David Hille



                                 Inter-         Hold                Build
                          Novice mediate Attack Obj.  Mobile        your
                          Games  Game    Enemy  Pos.  Def.   Recon. Own Game

                      Hills  4      5       V      V     V      V      4
                      Trees  4      5       V      V     V      V      7
                Rocky Areas  3      4       V      V     V      V      1
                Depressions  3      5       V      V     V      V      2
      Carrier Speed for You  6      6       5*     5*    6      6      6
         Tank Speed for You  6      6       5*     5*    5      6      4
    Carrier Speed for Enemy  6      5       5*     5*    5*     5      4
       Tank Speed for Enemy  6      5       5*     5*    5*     5      6
     Carrier Armour for You  6      6       3*     2*    2*     2      6
        Tank Armour for You  6      6       5*     4*    4*     4      5
     Carrier Armour for You  5      5       2*     2*    2*     2*     6
      Tank Armour for Enemy  5      5       5*     4*    4*     4*     6
  Antitank Gun Fire for You  2      2       2*     2     2      2      3
          Tank Fire for You  2      2       2*     2     2      2      1
Antitank Gun Fire for Enemy  1      1       2*     2     1*     1*     3
        Tank Fire for Enemy  1      1       2*     2     1*     1*     2
 # of Tank Platoons for You  1      0       3      2     1      0      1
# of Carrier Platoons for You  0    1       2      1     1      1      1
   # of Tank Plts for Enemy  1      0       1*     2*    2*     2*     2
# of Carrier Plts for Enemy  0      1       1*     1*    2      1*     1
           Panic Under Fire  N      N       N      N     N      N      Y
               Pace of Game  2      3       S      S     S      S      3
                   Scenario  3      6       1*     3*    5*     7*     7
                    Command  A      Q       Q      Q     Q      Q      Q
      Scout Platoon for You  N      N       Y      N     Y      Y      N
    Scout Platoon for Enemy  N      N       N*     N*    Y      N*     N
 # of Infantry Plts for You  0      1       2      1     1      0      0
 # of Infantry Plts for Enemy  0    1       1      1     1*     1*     1

Number shown varies by + 1, 50% of the time.
V = Varies from 1 to 8, randomly selected.
S = Set by player at start of game.
N = None or zero.



                Vehicle  Thickness  Armour  Kilometers  Speed       Fire
                Type      in MM's   Factor   Per Hour   Factor  Accuracy
1939 to 1942: ----------------------------------------------------------


Matilda         Tank            78       6          24       3         1
Valentine       Tank            65       5          24       3         1
Crusader II     Tank            40       3          42       5         1


char B-1        Tank            60       5          28       3         1
Hotchkiss       Tank            45       3          36       4         1
S-35 Medium     Tank            55       5          40       5         1


   wagon II     Tank            35    2(3)          40       5      1(2)
PKW III         Tank            50       4          40       5         1
SPW             Carrier         10       1          45       5         0


M11             Tank            30       2          42       5         1
M13             Tank            40       3          34       4         1


Type 89         Tank            17       1          25       3         1
Type 95         Tank            12       1          45       5         1
Type 97         Tank            25       2          38       4         1


7-TP            Tank            15       1          40       5         1


T-26            Tank            25       2          27       3         1
BT-7            Tank            22       2          53       6         1
T-34/76         Tank            47       4          52       6         1


Grant           Tank            55       5          38       4         1
Stuart          Tank            38    3(5)          58       6      1(2)

                Vehicle  Thickness  Armour  Kilometers  Speed       Fire
                Type      in MM's   Factor   Per Hour   Factor  Accuracy
1943 to 1945: ----------------------------------------------------------


Matilda         Tank            78       5          24       2         1
Valentine       Tank            65       4          24       2         1
Crusader III    Tank            40       2          42       4         1
Comet           Tank            80       5          51       5         1
Bren            Carrier         11       1          52       5         0


   wagon III    Tank            50       3          40       4         1
PKW IV          Tank            80       5          42       4         1
PKW V Panther   Tank           100       6          55       6         2
PKW VI Tiger    Tank           110       6          37       3         2
STG III         Tank            90    5(6)          40       4      1(3)
SPW             Carrier         10       1          55       6         0


Type 95         Tank            12       1          45       5         1
Type 97         Tank            25       1          38       4         1


T-34/85         Tank            75       5          52       5         2
KV-85           Tank           100       6          42       5         2
JS-11           Tank           120       6          37       3         2
SU-76           Tank            45    3(5)          45       5      1(2)


Stuart          Tank            38    2(4)          58       6      1(2)
Sherman         Tank            76       5          40       4         1
M10             Tank            76    5(6)          55       6      1(3)
M24 Chaffee     Tank            25       1          55       6         1
M26 Pershing    Tank            80       5          55       6         2
Half Track      Carrier         13       1          64       6         0

                Vehicle  Thickness  Armour  Kilometers  Speed       Fire
                Type      in MM's   Factor   Per Hour   Factor  Accuracy
Current: ---------------------------------------------------------------


Type 59         Tank            25       1          35       3         1
Type 63         Tank            14       1          40       3         1
K63             Carrier         10       1          50       5         1


Centurian       Tank           140       5          35       3         2
Chieftain       Tank           140       5          48       4         3
FV432           Carrier         13       1          52       5         0


AMX-30          Tank            50       2          65       5         2
AMX-10P         Carrier         12       1          65       5         2
Panhard VCR     Carrier         10       1         110       6         3


Leopard I       Tank            70       3          70       6         2
Leopard II      Tank           100       4          70       6         3
Marder          Carrier         30       2          75       6         2


Type 67         Tank            80       3          50       4         2
Merkava         Tank           100       4          45       4         3


Type 61         Tank            70       3          53       5         2
Type 74         Tank            64       3          45       4         2
Type 73         Carrier         10       1          60       5         0


T-55            Tank           170       5          48       4         2
T-62            Tank            90       4          42       4         2
T-70            Tank           100       4          55       5         2
PT-76           Tank            14    1(1)          44       4      1(2)
T-10            Tank           250       6          42       4         2
BTR-60          Carrier         10       1          80       6         0
BMP-1           Carrier         14       1          80       6         3


M48             Tank           120       5          48       4         2
M60             Tank           120       5          48       4         2
M551 Sheridan   Tank            30       1          70       6         3
M1 Abrams       Tank           130       5          72       6         3
M113            Carrier         30       2          70       6         0
XM2 Bradley     Carrier         42       3          66       5         2

Note: The number in parentheses should be used if the tank is being used
as a carrier.


Game Design and Programming
   David Hille

Game Development
   Joel Billings

SSI - Strategic Simulations Inc.

Manufactured and distributed in the U.K. under licence from Strategic
Simulations Incorporated by U.S. Gold Limited, Unit 10, The Parkway
Industrial Centre, Heneage Street, Birmingham B7 4LY.